result = pairs.map((pair) => (morePairs)).reduce(somePairs => lessPairs)in a distributed system.
To serve requirements above with commodity machines, the steaming framework use distributed systems in these architectures…
|Overhead of fault-tolerance||high||medium||medium||low|
Leveraging user and device data during user login to fight against
ATOs ranking from easy to hard to detect
Semi-supervised learning = unlabeled data + small amount of labeled data
Why? better learning accuracy than unsupervised learning + less time and costs than supervised learning
Brand / Advertiser: individuals or organizations who want to publish advertising messages to the customers.
Agency: they help the brand to interact with the rest of the ecosystem and manage the whole lifecycle of the advertising messages, including planning, creating, and distributing ad campaigns.
Trading Desk: It streamlines the media buying process.
Demand-side Platform (DSP): it automates online ad inventory and buying, helping agencies to manage accounts across different accounts and campaigns through one platform.
Data-management Platform (DMP)
Ad Exchange / Real-time Bidding (RTB): It matches ads suppliers with buyers.
Ad Network: It aggregates publisher inventory and sells it to advertisers.
Supply Side Platform (SSP): It monitors the entire ads inventory and suggest prices for ad space.
Publisher: Ad-space owners like website operators.
Andy Grove emphasizes that a manager’s most important responsibility is to elicit top performance from his subordinates..
Unfortunately, one management style does not fit all the people in all the scenarios. A fundamental variable to find the best management style is task-relevant maturity (TRM) of the subordinates.
|TRM||Effective Management Style|
|low||structured; task-oriented; detailed-oriented; instruct exactly “what/when/how mode”|
|medium||Individual-oriented; support, “mutual-reasoning mode”|
|high||goal-oriented; monitoring mode|
A person’s TRM depends on the specific work items. It takes time to improve. When TRM reaches the highest level, the person’s both knowledge-level and motivation are ready for her manager to delegate work.
The key here is to regard any management mode not as either good or bad but rather as effective or not effective.
By and large, anytime you change what people regularly use in a product, they will always throw an uproar. This happens to almost every release of products like Gmail, YouTube, iPhone, etc.
The product changes may turn out to be good or bad ones.